Breaking the bottleneck of garlic mechanization de

2022-08-06
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In June, Shandong Jinxiang garlic entered the acquisition period. On the 25th, when I entered Jinxiang County, I saw a series of transport vehicles filled with garlic galloping on the road. The garlic market was busy, and Jinan experimental machine factory was a leader in Jinan. "Compared with 2016, this year is a bumper harvest year, but this also determines that the price of garlic will not be too high. I have sold it to buyers at the price of 2.4 yuan per kilogram, and I can earn 18000 yuan per mu of land. The main reason is that the cost is too high. However, the market situation is like this. It is better to make some money than lose money." Sunbenguang, a garlic farmer in wangpi village, Jinxiang County, said to him

"in fact, the cost of chemical fertilizer is a small number, and the labor cost is the" big head "that makes people headache. The labor volume of garlic harvesting is large, the cost is high, and the efficiency is low, while the existing garlic harvesting machinery on the market is not practical." Sunbenguang's words reflected the mentality of most garlic farmers. For them, garlic farmers are suffering because it is difficult to find labor force and few applicable models. The current industry situation of "garlic is cruel" and "garlic is cheap" makes the hearts of garlic farmers fluctuate like a roller coaster

"garlic is cruel" "garlic is cheap"? Is that all

for the important significance of garlic in China's planting industry, hanyongping, deputy director of Shandong Provincial Bureau of agricultural machinery, introduced that garlic, as one of China's characteristic economic crops, has high economic benefits and great development potential because of its medical effects of enhancing human immunity and extensive sterilization, and as a long-term vegetable, condiment and health food

"As a famous garlic town in China, Shandong Jinxiang has a long history of planting garlic. It is known as the 'Garlic capital of China' and the reputation of 'the world sees China as garlic, and China sees Jinxiang as garlic'. It has always regarded the garlic industry as the leading industry for enriching the people and strengthening the county. The county has planted more than 600000 mu of garlic all year round, driving the surrounding planting area of more than 2mu. Its products are exported to more than 130 countries and regions, and the export volume accounts for more than 70% of the national export volume, which is the world's largest It is an important distribution center for garlic cultivation, storage and processing, and trade circulation. " Mengqingguang, director of Jining Agricultural Machinery Bureau, said that Shandong is a typical area for garlic planting in China

the garlic industry in Shandong has made remarkable achievements in the world, but it is also facing unprecedented difficulties and challenges

"at present, China's major food crops such as rice, corn and wheat have been fully mechanized, and the technology has been relatively mature. However, compared with decades ago, the planting of garlic is not much different." Sunbenguang was helpless. "It is really not easy for us garlic farmers to work day and night. Taking planting as an example, although there are machines that can prepare the ground, we still have to cooperate with some fire resistance experiments to squat on the ground and bend over a little bit to artificially plant buds. Back pain is a common thing. We are looking forward to having simple and economical garlic planting and harvesting machines to solve the pain of our garlic farmers."

local garlic farmers tell us that garlic requires a lot of labor from planting to harvesting, storage, processing and sales. If all employees are employed, the cost per mu is as high as more than 2000 yuan

"in recent years, affected by the change of rural labor structure, the labor cost of garlic production has accounted for 50% - 60% of the total production cost, which has reduced the comprehensive benefits of garlic planting and increased the planting risk, seriously affecting the healthy development of China's garlic industry." Wuzhaoming, chairman of Shandong Agricultural Machinery Association, further pointed out the obstacles of labor costs to China's garlic industry, "At present, the fields are dominated by 45-50 year old labors. In ten years' time, these labors will not be able to plant products with such labor intensity. With the increase of planting costs and the increase of labor and land input costs, the planting cost of garlic in China can be many times higher than that in Europe and the United States, where garlic is operated manually and mechanically. In addition, the soil is hardened by continuous cropping, the yield per unit area is reduced, and the problem of diseases and pests is becoming more and more serious, so that garlic farmers Earnings are very volatile. "

throughout the interview, I was amazed at the high demand for garlic machinery. Why are the problems of garlic planting still unsolved? Why is the whole process of garlic mechanization developing so slowly

"the mechanization level of garlic production is not high, especially in the planting and harvesting links, there is a lack of reliable machines and tools, and the research and development of mature and practical mechanized garlic production products is still in the initial stage. Of course, there are also some folk inventions, but there are common problems in quality and poor reliability. The slow development of garlic mechanization has seriously restricted the development of China's garlic industry." Hanyongping, deputy director of Shandong Agricultural Machinery Bureau, said

compared with manual operation, mechanical operation can greatly shorten the harvest period, reduce labor intensity, reduce production cost and achieve quality improvement gain. Therefore, it is urgent to accelerate the innovation and breakthrough of garlic machinery

the efficient and accurate garlic seeding technology has made a historic breakthrough

"finally, there is a seeder suitable for our garlic farmers! Sincerely praise the scientific and technical personnel!" In the Jinxiang experimental field of Shandong Maria Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd., the on-site demonstration of a "garlic growing tool" caused bursts of praise from the garlic farmers on the spot

on June 26, the first high-efficiency precision garlic seeder jointly developed by Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science and Shandong Maria Agricultural Machinery Co., Ltd. was officially launched, and a field operation demonstration was conducted after the new product launch. When the technician drove the 11 row efficient and accurate garlic seeder through the field, the garlic farmers on the scene rushed forward and squatted on the ground to see the sowing effect of garlic sprouts with their hands

luozhengdong, a garlic farmer from Jimsar County, Xinjiang, said excitedly: "the effect of this seeder is really good! 90% of the bud tips are upward, and the planting distribution is relatively uniform. Finally, we have found a reliable machine!"

jimusar County in Xinjiang is one of the four famous garlic townships in China and an important garlic producing area. Luozhengdong, 53, is the chairman of the local Zhengdong garlic cooperative, which has a garlic planting area of nearly 3000 mu. "In fact, the garlic planting area of our cooperative can be further expanded. However, due to the lack of suitable planting and harvesting machinery, the efficiency has not been improved. Now, only three people can harvest an mu of land a day. Moreover, because the planting area is too large, we should be particularly careful in selecting and purchasing machines. Once we choose which model, we must buy at least a dozen back." Luo Zhengdong said to while looking at the seeding effect of the new product

on site, many force measuring pointers rotate at a constant speed. Garlic farmers and large growers from Shandong and Xinjiang tell us that they have been looking forward to such accurate garlic planting machinery for a long time

"this efficient and accurate garlic seeder has broken through the key technical problems of garlic sowing, such as single seed picking, scale bud direction control, and vertical planting. The upright rate of seed buds has exceeded 90%, which can be said to reach the world leading level." Chenmingchuan, deputy secretary of the Party committee of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science, said

it is understood that the United States, France, Spain and other developed countries have developed and popularized garlic sowing and harvesting machinery to facilitate operation, and some domestic enterprises and garlic farmers have introduced and purchased these machinery

but why is the vast majority of garlic seed harvest in China still manual? Why has foreign machinery not been introduced and popularized in large areas in China

"we have also purchased several garlic seeders, but the effect is not ideal. There are problems such as injuring garlic, low verticality and different planting spacing, which are not suitable for the local planting requirements of our 3.1 formula for calculating the frequency of the smooth intersection point of acceleration and speed. Finally, the machine can only become a pile of scrap iron." Dou Dongwei, a garlic farmer from wangpi village in Jinxiang, said helplessly

"because the garlic planting mode in China is different from that in foreign countries, the Chinese people eat garlic stalks, which requires that the garlic must be planted with the bud tip upward to ensure the upright production of garlic stalks. Before the garlic is ripe and harvested, the garlic stalks are harvested first. However, there is no habit of eating garlic stalks in foreign countries, so it is not required to plant garlic upright, which is also the reason why foreign machinery cannot be directly introduced and used." Researcher majichun, director of the field operation research center of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science, answered the question, "at present, there are three major problems with the existing garlic seeders in China: first, the garlic seeds are irregular in shape and have large particles, which makes it difficult for the existing mechanical garlic to take a single seed; second, it is difficult to control the upright planting of garlic during the planting process; third, the machine is unstable in working state and has a high failure rate."

seeding, as the first link of garlic production, connects the following harvest, grading, processing and other links, and is the first key starting point to realize the whole process mechanization of garlic. The realization of efficient and accurate garlic sowing is a powerful boost to improve the whole process mechanization level of garlic in China, reduce the labor intensity of farmers, increase the income of farmers, and promote the large-scale and modern development of garlic industry in China

"the successful R & D and promotion of the efficient and accurate garlic seeder is an affirmation and encouragement to our R & D team and a satisfactory answer to the majority of garlic farmers." Majichun's exclamation about the historic achievement of garlic mechanization is full of endless affection and gratification

"now that we have advanced machinery, our work can be much easier." Sunbenguang has planned to order a new machine for use

the dawn of garlic harvester

"May is the season of garlic harvest. During this period, the labor force is the most scarce and popular. The labor cost of 200-300 yuan per mu is not enough. Each person can dig 3 minutes of land every day, and his hands are full of blood bubbles, which is painful, but he has to work on it the next day. It takes at least 3 or 4 people to work on a mu of land for a day to harvest, and the garlic must be harvested intensively in more than a week, or it may rot in the ground. If If you hire people to harvest, it will cost more than 1000 yuan per mu. If the garlic market was bad in those years, the money for selling garlic would not be enough for labor. " Sunbenguang said reluctantly that it is really difficult to find labor at this time of year, and many skilled workers have been booked long ago

researcher Jian Shichun, head of the scientific research team of Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science, told us that as early as 1998, Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery science carried out research on the whole process mechanized production of garlic in view of the problems such as the imperfect technical system of garlic mechanized production equipment, the need to improve the key production equipment technology, the lack of research on garlic planting mode suitable for mechanized production, and the need to deepen the integration of agricultural machinery and agronomy

"the diversity of garlic planting patterns in China has seriously affected the process of mechanized production. In the course of more than ten years of research, we have specially established a team of garlic mechanization research experts to study the planting patterns suitable for garlic mechanized production in combination with the requirements of garlic sowing machinery for planting patterns, focusing on breaking through the key technical problems restricting garlic mechanized production." According to jianshichun, Shandong Academy of agricultural machinery has carried out garlic mechanized seed harvest experiments on different types of garlic varieties under the flat border planting mode for many years, and the research and analysis are not

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